A visit to the dentist can turn into a surprise when you hear the doctor’s diagnosis. The fact is that each tooth has the number assigned to it, with two-digit value, for example, “39”, “48”.
Naturally, it causes a bit of surprise at patients because everyone knows that a healthy person should have from 28 to 32 teeth. To understand the doctor’s diagnosis, let’s see, what teeth are there and what do those mysterious numbers used by a dentist.
The content of the article:
Teeth, despite the outward similarity, differ from each other. Each of them is unique and fulfills its function.
Numbering in dentistry is necessary for optimizing the patient’s mouth diagnosis. Precise designations allow to shortly note data in the outpatient card.
It is important to note the use of a single numbering system. If you change the dentist, another doctor needs to understand what diseases have you had and how they were treated. If every dentist uses his or her own system of notes, it will violate the history of diseases of the patient.
The differences in the numbering still exist. Designation of permanent teeth differs from the numbers that are given to the numbering of milk teeth.
Despite the symmetry of the dentition, its own number is assigned to each tooth. To understand why it is done, we will consider the types of them and find out what are their functions.
By origin, the teeth are divided into permanent and temporary. Numbering starts from the middle of the dentition. We consider the structure of the jaw in an adult:
How do you know that you have the canine ache on the upper jaw, but not on the lower? To do this, the division of the jaws into 4 segments is performed. The countdown starts with the upper incisor, which is located on the right, then move further in a clockwise direction. Each of the parts has its name:
In order to easily memorize segmentation, it is sufficient to determine the starting point of counting, and move farther clockwise.
It remains to find out how many teeth should be in a healthy person, and at what age. Full formation of permanent teeth ends in about 13 years. Since then, the mouth has 28 pieces.
In the period from 17 to 31 years the “eights” should appear in a person. Thereafter, the mouth has 32 teeth – 16 on the upper and lower jaws which are arranged symmetrically to each other.
To understand how the calculation will hold teeth in children or adolescents, it is necessary to know how the change of temporary teeth on the root.
This process begins at the age of 6 or 7 years. During this period, there are the first molars, in other words – “Six”, as well as cutters, located on the lower jaw. Considering the process by age:
When diagnosing children, an adult numbering system is not enough, since both permanent and temporary teeth may be in the mouth. Therefore, for milk teeth another numbering system was made up.
The anatomical features of children’s jaws leave their print on the numbering system. Sequence numbers are the same as in adults. Up to six years, there should be 20 temporary teeth cut through. The first of them begin to appear beginning from 6 months of age, at the same age, dental germs of permanent teeth begin to grow.
X-ray of a child under the age of 6 years will not only show milk teeth, but also molars.
To distinguish between them, conventional division into segments is also carried out. Thus, the calculation is held beginning from the middle of the oral cavity assigning numbers “1” to “5”. The following division turns out:
There were invented more than 20 systems. The most popular of them are:
It is based on the square-cell counting system. Adopted in 1876, still today it is used when diagnosing children and adults.
To calculate the permanent teeth, Arabic numerals (1-8) are used, and for the temporary teeth – Roman (I-V). This calculation system is mainly used by orthodontists and maxillofacial surgeons.
The point of application of the system is reduced to adding characters “+” or “-” to the segments. The segments are separated as follows:
For the calculation of the milk systems “0” is added. As a result, the values from 01 to 05 are used. As the division into segments by analogy with the adult scheme plus and minus signs are used.
The two-digit international system was adopted in 1971. It is considered to be the most common, as most dentists use it worldwide.
Its essence lies in the use of sequence numbers 1 to 8 for adults and from 1 to 5 for children. Next to these numbers tens are added, thus getting values from “11” to “75”.
The popularity of Viola system is linked to a simple principle of calculation, which does not need complicated formulas. It is convenient to transfer information over the phone, email, or take notes in a medical card using this system.
For numbering teeth, the system uses a combination of numbers and letters. It was adopted by American Dental Association, which uses the following values as dental units:
Such a system of calculation is applied in adult dentistry, when observing kids, doctors use the same literal values. Capital, not small letters are used (i, c, p, m).
To determine what kind of tooth is questioned, American dentists use numbers that are at the bottom of letters. They are assigned according to the type of a tooth. For incisors – “1”, canines “2”, premolars “3”, and molars “4”. A segment number is added to these values, so they acquire a two-digit number.
In practice, the Americans use a very simple calculation system, assigning for each tooth a separate number. The countdown starts from the upper jaw on the right side. To do this, the number “1” is assigned to the wisdom tooth.
The calculation is held in a clockwise direction; it ends with number “32”. Milk teeth are named with Latin letters from «A» and moving further clockwise end with “T”.
Understanding numerology used in dentistry can help you talk to a doctor in the same language. Many people feel safer when they understand the meaning of the treatment and can decipher the diagnoses listed on the medical card.
Knowledge of the structure of the jaw and understanding individuality of any tooth will lead to the realization that each of them is necessary, therefore, their treatment should be carried out well in advance.