The appearance of keratinized areas of multilayered epithelium on the mucous membranes suggests leukokeratosis. It develops in the mouth, genital, and in some cases, it is formed in the internal organs: vagina, uterus, bladder, esophagus, etc.
The course of the disease almost does not cause discomfort and in a stable form can accompany human life. The danger is a possible transformation into a malignant form of leukokeratosis.
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Multifactorial etiology of oral leukoplakia allows speaking not so much about the causes of disease, as much of the circumstances which cause it. The leading role has external factors.
The chemical, thermal or mechanical stimuli, which create conditions for the replacement of mucosal by keratinized epithelium include:
Among the endogenous risk factors are the following violations in the work of the body:
The onset of the disease often is unnoticed, but since the mouth is more accessible for self-examination, the diagnosis of leukokeratosis usually occurs earlier than in the disease to other organs.
There are several forms of the disease, developing from one another. Flat leukokeratosis under unfavorable conditions becomes verrucous and further neglect of treatment leads to erosive form.
Separately, you can observe leukokeratosis in smokers. The possible presence of several forms simultaneously on different areas of the oral cavity, each of which can at any time to regenerate into a malignant neoplasm.
The first symptoms are usually observed in the field of chronic inflammation. The slightly blurred epithelium is replaced by translucent gray plaques that when iodine treatment remains a whitish color.
The diameter of the plaque does not exceed 1-2 inch. Outbreaks of the disease are formed:
Their emergence takes from two weeks to several months. In the first stage horny areas seem noticeably swollen, but then only slightly raised above the surrounding tissues.
Palpation shows no condensation, but the damaged area of the mucous becomes rough to the touch and loses its shine.
Flat leukoplakia is generally painless. In some cases, there are complaints of dryness and tightness in the site of the lesion.
Coating hyperkeratosis spots, depending on the degree of keratinization changes from transparent gray to bright white. Sami spots have clearly defined edges and can be kept within these limits a lifetime without causing any discomfort.
However, the strengthening of external influences or violation of some functions of the body process of keratinization of the oral mucosa is accelerated, the density and size of plaques are increased. It speaks about a transition into a verrucous stage of the disease.
In this form of the disease severity of hyperkeratosis increases. Lesions are perceived as rough surface of sealing.
Their whitish color stands out against a background of healthy mucous membranes. Chapped areas are sensitive to the food temperature and respond with a pain to spicy or sour dishes.
The impetus to a rebirth of leukokeratosis into malignant tumor are ongoing irritation or other predisposing disorders in the body.
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This is a distinct disease which does not depend on a history of prior hyperkeratosis is a benign cancer of the oral mucosa. Nevertheless, it can be triggered by existing forms of leukokeratosis or develop under the influence of the same factors.
Effected mucosa looks swollen and pale (greyish), and the boundary growths are blurred. The hallmark is exfoliation of reborn cells, leading to the habit of biting towering areas.
Soft leukokeratosis is localized mainly along the line of the teeth closing on the inside of the cheek and lip edges.
Self-diagnosis of leukokeratosis is not possible since the diagnosis requires confirmation by laboratory tests. There is a risk of the keratinized lesions getting worth therefore mandatory inspection point is a biopsy. It allows you to identify the cellular atypia characteristic of precancerous lesions.
If there is no immediate threat of regeneration into a malignant tumor, the fight against leukoplakia starts with conservative therapy. It is aimed at eliminating the factors that triggered the disease, and the normalization of metabolism in the epithelium.
It is recommended to give up smoking or reduction of consumed cigarettes. Spicy food and hot food are excluded from the diet. In the presence of abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract, there’s a need for their treatment.
The problems of dental character are solved:
During treatment, pay special attention to oral hygiene:
For local effects used applications of oily preparations: solutions tocopherol acetate, retinol, karotolin, tsigerol. It is important to avoid cautery plaque that leads only to increased keratinization and accelerates the transition to the erosive stage. The reception of vitamin A is prescribed, as well as immunomodulatory means and bracing means.
Most of these measures are performed at home or at the hospital. Usually, they are sufficient enough to eliminate the symptoms of a simple leukokeratosis or to bring it to a stable state.
Such procedures are as well appointed as the initial phase of treatment of verrucous and erosive forms. The absence of positive changes is the basis for surgical treatment.
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The traditional medicine has enough means to help to deal with the symptoms of cervical leukokeratosis, and other mucous membranes. These include vaginal douching, tampon insertion, and suppository with ointments based on vegetable oils and tinctures of eucalyptus, propolis, and calendula. Obviously, all this is not applied in the treatment when effecting affected mouth.
Therefore, the choice of the people’s choice will be aimed mainly at eliminating the factors that are conducive to the development of the disease:
In a simple form of the disease, herbal drugs can have a supporting effect and sometimes even replace medication.
Nevertheless, we must not forget that the leukokeratosis is a precancerous condition, and the sooner the changed portions of the mucous will come back to normal, the less is the likeliness of an adverse outcome.
So do not neglect the more efficient modern techniques. It is advisable to complement traditional remedies only with treatments prescribed by the doctor.
After the disappearance of all symptoms of leukokeratosis in the mouth, it is necessary to continue to monitor the state of the mucous membranes. The disease tends to relapse, especially when resuming external irritants.