A correct occlusion: photos, types
More than 70% of people suffer from the malocclusion. Many people believe that this pathology affects only their appearance and as a consequence the social life.
However, this is a common mistake. The development of malocclusion has serious consequences, affecting the entire body.
What does the term mean?
Let’s consider the term correct occlusion. A correct occlusion is a normal process of closing the jaws while chewing towards each other.
The end result of this movement, with a tight connection of the upper and lower row of teeth, is called a central occlusion. With the help of the central occlusion, one can understand what the occlusion means.
An occlusion is the relative position of the teeth of the upper and lower row with the central occlusion. The correctness or atypical occlusion is determined exactly by the position of the jaws of the centric occlusion.
The importance of its presence
Contrary to popular belief that malocclusion spoils the only appearance, a direct impact on human health has been proven. The most frequent pathologies in malocclusion:
- the development of dental diseases: caries, periodontal, etc. In rare cases, the misplaced jaws to implement quality cleaning of all the segments is difficult, which often provokes the development of pathologies of the gums and teeth;
- diseases of the digestive system, since improper occlusion often leads to insufficient chewing of food intake and its poor digestion. Normally, digestive problems cause a lack of certain substances.
They, in turn, lead to a weakening of the body and the possibility of the development of diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and many others;
- rapid wear of the dental crowns. It provokes an uneven load distribution on the individual teeth group;
- speech pathology. In this case, the pronunciation of some sounds is difficult. To correct the situation is only possible by means of orthodontic procedures;
- headaches and joint pain. Improper positioning of the jaw results in enhanced work of ligaments and muscles during chewing and overload. The result is a spasm causing pain in the temporal part of the head and jaw joint;
- the displacement and deformation of the cervical vertebrae (the atlas and odontoid process). This pathology often occurs when a strong rearward displacement of the lower jaw takes place and has a number of serious consequences.
At a displacement of this nature, the lumen of the respiratory tract and the vertebral artery significantly narrows. It makes breathing more difficult and impairs blood flow to the brain.
Occlusion and its types
One can determine the proper closing of the jaws visually, without having to visit the dentist. For this purpose, there are certain parameters and characteristics.
But it should be borne in mind that the correct occlusion is of several types. The exact form of occlusion will diagnose the dentist.
To determine the occlusion, some signs of correct clamping of jaws have been made by dentists. Occlusion should be determined in the closed and locked position of the teeth.
Signs of correct occlusion:
- the lower part of the oval of the face is completely symmetrical;
- in place of the contact with upper and lower dentition, there are no slots and no gaps;
- each jaw cutters must have a vertical symmetry with respect to each other, forming visually a single line. The same applies to the rest of the teeth of the same name;
- an upper front row of teeth covers the lower for 30% of the total length of the crown;
- cutting part of the lower incisors arc touches the cusp of the upper incisors. Palatal cusps of other teeth of the upper arch are located in the lower recesses of chewing teeth;
- maxillary arch is of a clearly distinct from each other shape and size. For the top of the arc it is common a presence of a semi-oval shape and a size greater than that of the bottom. The bottom has a parabolic arc shape and small size. This ratio shapes and sizes ensure the correct inclination of the dentition;
- premolars and molars do not lose contact with each other when moving the jaw forward or backward;
- no obvious interdental spaces are present in the rows.
For all its correctness, even a normal occlusion can be different. Although the differences in this are highly smoothed. Dentists have identified several types of such an occlusion:
- orthognathic. This bite is considered the most perfect of all, but also the rarest. Characterized by correct position of the dentition in relation to each other, overlapping the bottom row by the upper for 1/3 of the crown. Provides complete chewing of food, and a correct speech;
- protrusive occlusion. A bit different from the orthognathic type, in the position of the lower jaw. It’s pushed forward, but only slightly. Teeth from the opposite rows at the same time are in close contact with each other, as in orthognathic occlusion;
- straight. In this type of occlusion, the teeth do not cover each other. Cutters of opposite rows contact in between with a cutting surface. Straight occlusion is often the cause of the rapid thinning of the enamel of the front teeth. This is due to a constant load on them;
- biprognathic occlusion. Characterized by the correct form of the jaw arcs of symmetrical positions and a good interproximal contacts of both jaws. The different pathological inclination of the front teeth: the upper and lower front teeth have a pronounced tilt forward.
Despite the difference of types of a correct bite, they all guarantee the full functioning of the mandibular system.
Unfortunately, a proper occlusion is a rare phenomenon. The most common are violations of the bite with clamping jaw arcs.
There are six main types of abnormal occlusion:
- the distal (prognathic). Different disproportionate development of the upper jaw;
- medial (mesial). Also has a name – the return type of a bite. In the reverse type, a lower jaw arc has some expressed forward teeth. The upper set of teeth significantly overlap the lower teeth;
- open. It is characterized by not closing of the most of the teeth. Depending on the localization of the segment of unclosing we distinguish between the front closure and the lateral open bite. In a frontal bite, non-closure is observed in the area of the front teeth. In a side – in the area of the side;
- deep. In this type of malocclusion, the top row of teeth can close the bottom row by half or more. This position of the jaws often leads to injury of the oral cavity;
- cross. Upper and lower jaws are strong underdeveloped, which provokes cross of the intersection of the upper and lower dentition;
- reducing (acquired) bite. The reason for this is the rapid erasure bite dental tissues.
Features of treatment
Modern methods of dentistry can effectively deal with malocclusion. Restoring a correct bite may take 1 year or up to 3. It all depends on the individual case and the chosen method of correction.
Bite correction is possible only after the removal of inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity.
The main methods used for occlusion correction:
- removable orthodontic system. With a slight change in the bite using transparent silicone caps to align the teeth, which do not cause any discomfort. Disorders of the dentition and chewing process can be corrected with the help of trainers. If you want the musculoskeletal system correction or correction of mandibular arch, orthodontic plate;
- fixed orthodontic system: braces or facial arc. Such systems are used in severe malocclusion. Braces allow dot effect on each tooth, forming its correct position. Facial arcs are used to correct occlusion with the pathology of the jaw;
- a set of exercises, including massage, miotherapy;
- surgical intervention. It is needed in the anomalous development of the jaw bones or severe violations of occlusion.
What to do for a right developing of a normal occlusion for a child?
To avoid problems with the bite as an adult, you need to take care of its formation since childhood. From the moment, the first tooth appeared above the gum.
- since the beginnings of teeth are formed in the fetus, pregnant women should take care of the health, avoiding metabolic disorders;
- where possible, refuse artificial feeding mixtures. Feeding baby with a bottle can lead to the formation of habits constantly urge the lips;
- try to use a pacifier as little as possible. We recommend using it no more than 6 hours a day. It is advisable to buy a special (orthodontic) pacifier;
- after two years wean the child from the habit of thumb, toy, pacifier sucking;
- try to teach your baby to sleep in the right position without throwing back or pressing head;
- pay attention to the quality and mode of baby’s diet. Lack of vitamins or too soft food not corresponding the age leads to malocclusion;
- timely treat of inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system and their prevention;
- teach the child the skills of oral hygiene. Dentists recommend starting oral care since the age of two. Cleaning should be done with a soft brush without toothpaste at least twice a day;
- follow the development of correct posture;
- during the formation of the occlusion it is necessary to conduct timely prosthesis of lost teeth;
- when the first symptoms of malocclusion in the period of its formation corrective massage and formative gymnastics should take place. You can also use the vestibular plate or trainers.
Timely detection of anomalies prevents the abnormal development of malocclusion, or, at least, simplifies the upcoming treatment.
Follow the development of your child’s teeth, you will help to prevent potential problems with the occlusion in the future. It is more complicated to treat a malocclusion than to prevent it.
The treatment process can take years, requires a lot of time and money. The main rule is to avoid this – prevention and timely visit to the dentist, orthodontist.